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Fertility Talk With Dr Ajayi: What Is Thyroidism

Fertility Talk With Dr Ajayi: What Is Thyroidism


Thyroid disorders are conditions that affect the thyroid gland, a butterfly-shaped gland in the front of the neck, located below the Adam’s apple wrapped around the trachea (windpipe). A thin area of tissue in the gland’s middle, known as the isthmus, joins the two thyroid lobes on each side.


The thyroid functions to regulate numerous metabolic processes throughout the body. It uses iodine to produce vital hormones. Thyroxine, also known as T4, is the primary hormone produced by the gland. After delivery to the body’s tissues, a small portion of the T4 is converted to triiodothyronine (T3), which is the most active hormone.

The function of the thyroid gland is controlled by a feedback mechanism involving the brain. When thyroid hormone levels are low, the hypothalamus in the brain produces a hormone known as thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), this causes the pituitary gland (located at the base of the brain) to release thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). TSH stimulates the thyroid gland to release more T4.

Different types of thyroid disorders affect either its structure or function, specific disorders includes: Hypothyroidism, Hyperthyroidism, Goiter, Thyroid nodules and Thyroid cancer. Since the thyroid gland is controlled by the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, disorders of these tissues can also affect thyroid function and cause thyroid problems. Thyroid disorders affect metabolic processes and the effect is seen in all the systems of the body, we will concentrate however on the functions as it affects fertility

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